Setup / Installation of a Raspberry Pi
First of all, you have to download the image from https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads/ :
In parallel you can delete and format your SD-card. On am Mac it is quiet easy. Select in the finde the “Programs” and go to “System Utilities”. Click on the “Harddisk Utility”. Be careful! You could delete your HDD of the Mac! This is the recommended workflow:
- Put the SD-card in a SD-card reader or in the SD-card slot of the Mac.
- Select the Card (NOT you HDD of the Mac)!
- Choose these values:
- Name: free
- Format: MS DOS File System (FAT)
- Schema: Master Boot Record
That’s it! In the meantime the download should be finished. You can find the image in the “Downloads” Folder. Now start a Terminal window. You can find it in the utilities folder. Fist of all, switch to the admin mode with root access. In my case it is the “Admin” user.
su Admin Password:xxxxxxx bash-3.2$ diskutil list /dev/disk0 (internal, physical): #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: GUID_partition_scheme *500.1 GB disk0 1: EFI EFI 209.7 MB disk0s1 2: Apple_APFS Container disk1 499.9 GB disk0s2 /dev/disk1 (synthesized): #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: APFS Container Scheme - +499.9 GB disk1 Physical Store disk0s2 1: APFS Volume SSD_Macintosh 361.9 GB disk1s1 2: APFS Volume Preboot 20.6 MB disk1s2 3: APFS Volume Recovery 514.7 MB disk1s3 4: APFS Volume VM 4.3 GB disk1s4 /dev/disk2 (external, physical): #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: FDisk_partition_scheme *16.0 GB disk2 1: DOS_FAT_32 EVALUIERUNG 16.0 GB disk2s1 bash-3.2$ diskutil umountDisk /dev/disk2 Unmount of all volumes on disk2 was successful bash-3.2$ sudo dd if=/Users/##USER-NAME##/Downloads/2018-11-13-raspbian-stretch-full.img of=/dev/disk2 bs=4m Password: load: 1.42 cmd: dd 1171 uninterruptible 0.00u 1.54s 37+0 records in 36+0 records out 150994944 bytes transferred in 20.125403 secs (7502704 bytes/sec) load: 1.48 cmd: dd 1171 uninterruptible 0.00u 4.72s 118+0 records in 117+0 records out 490733568 bytes transferred in 63.439629 secs (7735442 bytes/sec) 1263+0 records in 1263+0 records out 5297405952 bytes transferred in 675.900108 secs (7837557 bytes/sec) bash-3.2$
If you want to see the status of the installation: Press >CTRL< + t . The installation lasts between 10 and 60 min. Depending on the SD card and the Mac.
If the image is on the SD-card, you have to activate the ssh mode and WiFi. Therefor a file is needed in the root partition -that you can find on the desktop of you Mac. The easiest way is to generate this file is:
That’s all! Now you can boot the Raspi the first time! But connect it to the LAN, because WiFi is not activated and configured. In the DHCP Service you can find the IP address of the Raspi. Type in the terminal: ssh pi@###ip-address###. The password of the user pi is > raspberry < .
Some topics that are not mandatory but userful.
Passwort pi reset
sudo passwd pi
If you want to have the raspberry files in the Finder, you have to configure Samba. Fist of all, install it with this commands:
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install samba samba-common-bin sudo vi /etc/samba/smb.conf
The last line is needed for the configuration. Please insert at the end of the file “read only = no”.
sudo su root@raspberrypi:/home/pi# smbpasswd -a root New SMB password: Retype new SMB password: Added user root. smbpasswd -a pi New SMB password: Retype new SMB password: Added user pi.
Restart of the Samba service:
/etc/init.d/samba stop /etc/init.d/samba start
The go to the Finder of you Mac and select in the Finder-Menu “Go to Server” and type the server address:
Please insert the correct address, select “connect” and the user “pi”.
If the connect is not possible the the Raspi due to the fact that it has to be reinstalled and the SHA key was already in use before. Therefore try this:
ssh-keygen -R "myIP“
myIP is the IP Adresse of the Raspi.
Connect the Raspi to a Synology NAS (Mounting a Shared Drive)
First you have to give the permissions to the user / the ip address. Therefore you have to login an the NAS as an administrator. Go to the “Control Panel”. Choose “Shared Folders” from “File Sharing” and select the folder, that has to be shared. I this case > pi < und > web <:
Then select “Create” and go in the “NFS-Permissions” tab and add a new “NFS rule”
Then “ok” and back to the Raspi!
Create a mount point
sudo mkdir /web sudo mkdir /nas sudo vi /etc/fstab
With the last command, the file is open that has the information about the point points. In this case is is the folder > pi < and >web< on the NAS that hast to bee mounted to the folders >pi< and >nas< on the Raspi. You can do that with that lines:
192.168.2.107:/volume1/pi /nas nfs atime,auto,rw,dev,exec,suid 0 0 192.168.2.107:/volume1/web /web nfs atime,auto,rw,dev,exec,suid 0 0
Please do not modify the other lines! They are needed for the SD-card. Afterwards you can execute this commands:
sudo mount -a sudo /etc/init.d/rpcbind start
That’s all! The Raspberry has mounted the shared folders.
Edit the following file:
sudo vi /etc/network/interfaces
auto lo iface lo inet loopback iface eth0 inet dhcp auto wlan0 allow-hotplug wlan0 iface wlan0 inet dhcp wpa-ap-scan 1 wpa-scan-ssid 1 wpa-ssid "My - SSID" wpa-psk "My - Password"
Please insert YOUR password for the WiFi and the SSID of the WiFi. The you can do a reboot and unplug the LAN. But your Raspi has a new address! Use this for login. Now it is time for the first Backup! If you crash it or you misconfigure it you can set it up without trouble shooting!
Backup while the Raspi is switched on
A Backup while the Raspi is switched on is problematical. It works, but not stable! In this example I use the mounted /nas folder for the backup. The whole Raspi is in the folder /dev/mmcblk0! This folder has to be saved with “dd” command.
sudo fdisk /dev/mmcblk0 Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.29.2). Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them. Be careful before using the write command. Command (m for help): p Disk /dev/mmcblk0: 14.9 GiB, 15962472448 bytes, 31176704 sectors Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disklabel type: dos Disk identifier: 0xc7513dd7 Device Boot Start End Sectors Size Id Type /dev/mmcblk0p1 8192 98045 89854 43.9M c W95 FAT32 (LBA) /dev/mmcblk0p2 98304 31176703 31078400 14.8G 83 Linux Command (m for help): q sudo dd if=/dev/mmcblk0 of=/nas/Backup/2018-12-09-Eval.img bs=1M 15223+0 records in 15223+0 records out 15962472448 bytes (16 GB, 15 GiB) copied, 1455.43 s, 11.0 MB/s
Be careful with this! Some data can be locked or are saved while you do the backup! The 100-% way is to do the backup with the SSD-card and without the Raspi!